Asthma, its types and treatment

Written By The HealthMeth Team - Updated On Saturday, March 13, 2021 6:00 PM


Asthma is defined as a chronic human condition that results in inflammation in the airways, which swell and produce additional mucus, which leads to its narrowing and the sufferer suffers from repeated attacks of shortness of breath, especially when exposed to a respiratory irritant , despite It is true that asthma does not have a cure, but the symptoms associated with it can be reduced and controlled using a group of drug treatments prescribed by a doctor. [1] [2]

In fact, the symptoms of asthma vary from person to person, as it can be in the form of attacks that appear at times, or accompany the patient all the time, whether when exerting effort or during times of rest, and the most prominent of these symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing , wheezing or wheezing that appears Usually during exhalation, and suffering from sleep disturbances resulting from difficulty breathing, and by looking at the symptoms of asthma, we find that they are among the general symptoms that may accompany other diseases, but they get worse when the patient is exposed to allergens such as pets, dust mites, cockroaches, mold, pollen , Or when he was exercising or when he had a viral infection. [1] [2]

Types of asthma

Asthma is classified into many types based on several factors such as the cause of the patient's symptoms, the age at which these symptoms began to appear, and the patient's response to drug treatments, [3] Knowing the specific type of asthma that the patient suffers from helps to determine a more effective treatment plan for his condition, [4] and what follows: A statement of the main types of asthma that have been identified according to the following factors: [5] [6]

  • The age at which symptoms began:
    • Child-onset asthma: This term is given to asthma that begins in childhood, as the child becomes more sensitive to allergens in the environment, and it stimulates the child's immune system response , and this hypersensitivity is attributed to the presence of factors A genetic cause of asthma in a child in most cases.
    • Adult asthma: This type of asthma is less common than pediatric asthma, and differs from it in terms of age at which symptoms appear, as asthma symptoms appear when a person with this type of asthma is for the first time after he is over twenty years old. And adult asthma is more prevalent among women than men, and is closely related to allergens in the air, and among the most prominent groups that may be more vulnerable to this type of asthma are the following:
      • Women who suffer from hormonal changes, such as pregnant women or those who have reached menopause .
      • Women who have taken estrogen for ten years or more after menopause.
      • People who have recently been exposed to some viral diseases such as cold or influenza .
      • People who are obese .
      • People who suffer from allergies, specifically cat allergies.
      • People who are exposed to a respiratory irritant such as tobacco smoke , mold, dust and perfume .
  • The cause of the symptoms:
    • Exercise-Induced Asthma Although asthma symptoms worsen after exercising in most asthma patients, what distinguishes patients with this type of asthma is that asthma symptoms do not appear on them during rest times in most cases, Rather, they appear only after exercising, despite their good fitness.
    • Asthma caused by cough , in which the patient suffers from the persistence of his coughing at all times, even at night, which may lead to interrupting his sleep and disturbing him, and in many cases the patient suffers only from a cough without accompanying any symptoms Other asthma, and this is what makes diagnosing this type of asthma very difficult.
    • Occupational asthma , where the emergence and worsening of asthma symptoms in a person with this type of asthma is associated with his presence in his workplace as a result of inhaling a chemical, vapors, gases, smoke, dust, or any other asthma trigger.
  • The patient's response to treatment:
    • Steroid-Resistant Asthma This type includes patients who do not respond to steroid treatment .

Asthma treatment

Asthma is a long-term disease that needs permanent treatment. The treatment can vary from person to person, and depends on a number of factors such as age, symptoms, and the nature of the triggers that provoke asthma. Among the most prominent treatments used in the treatment of asthma are the following: [7]

  • Quick-Relief Medication : , which works to open narrow respiratory passages that impede the process of breathing quickly, in order to get rid of the acute symptoms that accompany asthma attacks, including:
    • Short-acting beta agonists are among the most common medications used when experiencing an asthma attack, as they act within minutes and are given using a nebulizer or inhaler.
    • Ipratropium is one of the quick-relief medicines that a patient uses as soon as an asthma attack appears, as it immediately relaxes the airways, making breathing easier.
  • Control drugs long - term: are given these drugs often on a daily basis in order to control the disease, and reduce the likelihood of exposure to infected asthma, including:
    • Inhaled corticosteroids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs, are often given in the form of inhalers or inhalers, and it takes several days or weeks to reach their maximum effect, and these drugs are characterized by fewer side effects compared to oral steroids, including fluticasone Fluticasone, budesonide, and flunisolide.
    • Leukotriene antagonists, these treatments are given orally, and help relieve asthma symptoms for up to 24 hours, and it should be noted that in some rare cases these drugs may cause some psychological symptoms such as aggression, irritability, hallucinations , and depression , Among the most prominent types of these drugs are Montelukast and Zileuton.
    • Long-acting beta agonists, as these inhaled medications open the airways .


  1. ^ A b "Asthma" , , 9-3-2018, Retrieved 28-4-2018. Edited.
  2. ^ A b Syed Shahzad by Mustafa (17-1-2017), "Asthma" , , Retrieved 28-4-2018. Edited.
  3. "Types of Asthma" , , Retrieved 28-04-2018. Edited.
  4. "Types of Asthma" , , Retrieved 28-04-2018. Edited.
  5. "Types of Asthma" , , 30-3-2016, Retrieved 28-4-2018. Edited.
  6. "Adult-Onset Asthma" , , Retrieved 28-4-2018. Edited.
  7. "Asthma" , , Retrieved 28-04-2018. Edited.