It can be said that anemia is the most common blood-related disease around the world, as the number of people infected with it in the United States of America is estimated at nearly three million, while the number of people with it worldwide is approximately 1.6 billion, and accordingly the proportion of people with anemia globally was estimated at approximately 25%, and it should be noted that children under the age of six are most at risk of developing it, and anemia can be defined as a disease that is represented by a lack of the number of healthy red blood cells in the body, and this may occur as a result of a problem or health disorder that affects the ability The body makes red blood cellsOr as a result of the body being affected by factors or health problems that cause red blood cells to be lost or broken down in a way that exceeds the normal limit. In fact, there are more than four hundred types of anemia, and anemia not only affects humans, but also cats and dogs. 
In fact, the doctor who specializes in diagnosing anemia depends on understanding the health and family history of the concerned person, as well as knowing the symptoms that the sufferer complains of, including headache, difficulty concentrating, and an increased heart rate, and in addition to all of this, he performs a physical examination of the patient and conducts some tests , The following is a statement of some of these tests:  
- Counting the bloody mass: , and this examination the doctor can find out the number of red blood cells, white blood cells , as well as platelets , and for anemia, the doctor means the number of red blood cells , primarily, and on the face of Determination is the result of hemoglobin and hematocrit , which represents the level of red blood cells in the blood. It should be noted that the normal level of hemoglobin in adult men ranges between 14 and 18 g / dl, while in adult women it ranges between 14 And 16 g / dL, while the normal rate of heatocrit for adult men ranges between 40-52%, and for adult women between 35-47%, and all this with the need to take into account the presence of slight differences between laboratories.
- Tests to find out the cause: After the doctor confirms that the patient suffers from anemia , further tests must be conducted to discover the cause and find out whether the patient suffers from serious health problems that caused his anemia, and from these tests we mention the following:
- Hemoglobin Electrophoresis.
- Reticulocyte count: To see if the bone marrow is manufacturing red blood cells on the face at the required speed.
- Ferritin level to detect iron levels in the body and blood.
- A peripheral blood smear to detect the shape of the red blood cells, in other words, to find out whether the anemia caused the change in the shape of the red blood cells.
- Osmotic fragility test, to see if the red blood cells become more fragile than normal.
- Endoscopy: to detect the presence of internal bleeding, especially in the upper part of the digestive system, as well as to detect colon problems and others that may cause the patient to suffer from anemia.
- Chest X-ray imaging , to rule out infection of the person.
- Ultrasound imaging, for the purpose of detecting internal health problems that may cause the patient to suffer from anemia, such as enlarged spleen and uterine leiomyomas .
- CT scan , and it is used in cases where internal bleeding is thought and an endoscopy cannot be performed, and it is also used to detect problems of lymph nodes, bones and other internal causes of anemia.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This type of imaging can detect bone and bone marrow problems as well, in addition to helping to diagnose iron overload, due to its role in detecting iron concentration in various organs Including the heart and liver.
Causes of anemia
There are many factors and health problems that may cause a sufferer to suffer from anemia , including the following: 
- Hemorrhage: a person may suffer from anemia as a result of bleeding a large amount of blood, as is the case in the case of heavy menstruation, colon cancer, internal bleeding in general, in addition to various types of wounds.
- Iron deficiency: In fact, the bone marrow needs iron to manufacture red blood cells, as iron is responsible for the form of hemoglobin, and therefore iron deficiency due to a lack of its content in food or because of long-term bleeding may cause iron deficiency anemia .
- Kidney diseases: The kidneys secrete a hormone known as Erythropoietin, which helps the bone marrow to manufacture red blood cells , and the kidneys are affected by long-term diseases, including kidney failure, which causes a decrease in the production of this hormone and thus the person suffers from anemia the blood.
- Malnutrition: In addition to iron, the bone marrow needs vitamin B12 and folic acid to manufacture hemoglobin, and accordingly, food that lacks these elements causes a person to suffer from anemia.
- "Everything you need to know about anemia" , www.medicalnewstoday.com , Retrieved April 21. Edited.
- "Anemia" , www.mayoclinic.org , Retrieved April 21, 2018. Edited.
- "Anemia" , www.radiologyinfo.org , Retrieved April 21, 2018. Edited.
- "Anemia" , www.emedicinehealth.com , Retrieved April 21, 2018. Edited.