Function of supra-adrenal gland hormones

Written By The HealthMeth Team - Updated On Saturday, March 13, 2021 6:00 PM


The adrenal gland , known gland above the renal one of the endocrine, contains the human body on Gd Kzeratin Mtheltta shape, each one located two above one of the kidneys, and despite the small size of these glands, but they Tffersan a group of hormones that They play an important role in many vital functions in the body, such as regulating blood pressure, metabolism, immune system functioning , response to stress and stress, and the functioning of the adrenal gland is regulated and controlled by the pituitary gland in the brain.The adrenal gland is divided into an outer part known as the adrenal cortex, and an inner part known as the adrenal medulla, each part of which is responsible for the secretion of certain hormones. [1] [2]

Functions of adrenal hormones

Hormones of the adrenal cortex

Three main types of hormones are secreted from the adrenal cortex, which are Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, and Sex Hormones. The following is an explanation of the hormones of these three groups and their function in the body: [3] [4]

  • Aldosterone: Aldosterone is one of the mineralocorticoids, and this hormone helps the total body to regulate the balance of water and salt in the blood and tissues, and thus control blood pressure .
  • Alhaadrukiianon: are classified Alhaadrukiianon as one of glucocorticoids, also known Balchortizul , and contributes to this hormone in the regulation of blood pressure level, and functions of cardiovascular, processes fat conversion, proteins, and carbohydrates into energy, it also inhibits the work of The immune system and regulates metabolism to help the body control stress and tension.
  • Corticosterone: Corticosterone works in cooperation with Hydrocortisone to regulate the immune response in the body and inhibit inflammatory reactions.
  • Estrogen: The hormone estrogen A female sex hormones responsible for the development of female physical attributes and control functions of the reproductive system the female.
  • Androgen: Androgen represents a group of male sex hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex, and are responsible for the development of male physical characteristics, and it should be noted that these hormones are produced in men and women, but in different proportions, and androgen plays a role in the manufacture of Estrogen. In fact, small amounts of sex hormones are produced in the adrenal gland, while the largest proportion is produced in the ovaries of women, and the testicles in men.

Adrenal pulp hormones

The hormones produced in the adrenal core are called catecholamines, and they are classified as hormones and neurotransmitters, and these hormones are released mainly in response to stress. To help the body deal with physical and emotional stress, we mention of these hormones the following: [3] [4]

  • Adrenaline: also known as epinephrine , this hormone is secreted in response to sudden, short-term stressful situations. Such as fear and shock, as it increases the speed of the heartbeat to help the blood flow to the muscles and brain, and also raises blood pressure, and increases blood sugar by helping to convert the sugar stored in the liver in the form of glycogen into glucose .
  • Noradrenaline: or norepinephrine , this hormone is secreted in response to stressful situations as well, and in addition to its functions similar to the functions of the hormone adrenaline, this hormone causes blood vessels to narrow, which leads to high blood pressure.

Adrenal gland disorders

There are many different disorders that may affect the adrenal gland, which may arise from the adrenal gland itself or from one of the other glands, and disorders of the adrenal gland are represented by an increase in the production of hormones or a decrease in the normal rate, and among these disorders we mention the following: [2] [4]

  • Addison's disease: Addison's disease is also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, and it is one of the rare health problems that affect the adrenal gland and lead to a decrease in the ability of the adrenal cortex to produce the hormones cortisol and aldosterone.
  • Cushing's syndrome: or what is known as adrenocortical hyperactivity, which is also a rare disorder, and occurs as a result of the secretion of large quantities of the hormone cortisol from the adrenal gland, which leads to the emergence of some symptoms such as weight gain and fat accumulation in specific areas of The body, such as the face, abdomen, and under the back of the neck, in addition to thinning limbs, high blood pressure, diabetes , and muscle weakness.
  • Hyperplasia adrenal Congenital is hyperplasia of adrenal congenital a genetic disorders as a result of the loss of one necessary for the production of enzymes occur cortisol or aldosterone, or both, and often suffer affected by the condition of the high level of hormones androgens, which This results in early puberty in males and the appearance of some masculine characteristics in girls.
  • Adrenal cancer: adrenal cancer is a very rare type of cancer , and in the event that it occurs, it is characterized by its large growth, and it often spreads to other body organs during the period in which it is diagnosed, and it causes major changes in the body as a result of an increase in one or more secretions. More than the adrenal gland hormones.

Symptoms of adrenal gland disorders

Symptoms of a disorder of the adrenal gland usually appear gradually, as they are not apparent at the beginning and then intensify and increase either and over time, and in what follows some of these symptoms: [1]

  • Feeling dizzy.
  • Feeling sick and vomiting.
  • Being very tired.
  • Suffering from excessive sweating.
  • Low blood pressure and blood sugar.
  • Feeling like eating salt.
  • Dark spots on the skin.
  • Irregular menstruation .
  • Suffering from unexplained weight gain or loss.
  • Suffering from muscle and joint pain.


  1. ^ A b Kristeen Cherney, "Adrenal Glands" , , Retrieved 25-11-2018. Edited.
  2. ^ A b "Adrenal Glands" , , Retrieved 25-11-2018. Edited.
  3. ^ A b "Adrenal Gland" , , Retrieved 25-11-2018. Edited.
  4. ^ A b t of Robert M Sargis, "An Overview The Of The Adrenal Glands" , , Retrieved 25-11-2018. Edited.