Normally, the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin to help store sugar and fats and benefit from them, and diabetes is defined as a group of diseases that are characterized by disorders and problems with the insulin hormone. With the lack or lack of the body’s secretion of the hormone insulin, or the cells ’failure to respond to the insulin secreted properly, and it can be said that diabetes has two basic types, as for the first type , in which the immune system attacks and destroys the cells producing the pancreas, while the second type of diabetes in which the pancreas secretes less hormone insulin or weakens the cells' response to the secreted insulin, and in fact the second type of diabetes is the most popular and common, and it is worth noting that despite the lack of a cure for diabetes, there are many options. Treatment that preserves the patient's health and protects him from complications as much as possible.  
Symptoms of diabetes
In fact, type 1 diabetes usually appears suddenly within a few days or weeks, and on the other hand, type 2 diabetes appears gradually, and its symptoms are often general at first, and this is why people with diabetes do not know until after they have passed For many years, and it should be noted that the severity of symptoms varies with different levels of sugar in the blood, and the most important symptoms that appear on people with diabetes can be explained as follows:  
- Excessive feeling of thirst.
- Frequent need to urinate, especially at night.
- Feeling very hungry.
- Recurring infections, especially those affecting the gums, vagina and skin.
- Feeling very tired.
- Weight loss and reduced muscle mass.
- The appearance of ketone bodies in the urine. These bodies can be defined as the products of the processes that break down fat and muscles in the absence of insulin in the body.
- Suffering from itching around the penis in men and the vagina in women, or repeated infection with fungi.
- Slow wound healing .
- Blurred vision.
Diabetes risk factors
Type 1 risk factors
Although it is not possible to completely determine the cause of suffering from type 1 diabetes , there are some factors that are believed to have a role in increasing the risk of developing it, including the following: 
- Family history: The risk of developing type 1 diabetes increases if one of the parents or siblings suffers from this disease.
- Environmental factors: Exposure to some types of viruses may increase the likelihood of developing this type of diabetes.
- The presence of autoantibody: autoantibody is defined as destroyed immune cells, and it has been found that the presence of these cells may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, and this does not negate the fact that some people did not suffer from diabetes despite the presence of these cells In their body.
- The nature of the food: Although there is no direct cause of any type of food for type 1 diabetes, it is believed that eating cereal crops before the fourth month of life, consuming cow's milk at an early age, and lacking and consuming vitamin D increases the risk of developing this disease. .
- The nature of geography: There has been a rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in some regions and countries, such as Finland and Sweden.
Type 2 risk factors
In fact, scientists were unable to know the reason behind some people developing type 2 diabetes, and others not afflicting others, but it is believed that there are a set of factors that increase the risk of developing it, and among these factors are the following: 
- Weight: The greater the weight, the greater the cells' resistance to insulin, which in turn increases the risk of diabetes.
- Inactivity: Lack of activity and inactivity increases the chance of developing type 2 diabetes, because activity helps control weight, stimulates the use of glucose for energy production, and increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin .
- Family history: The chance of developing diabetes increases if one of the parents or siblings has diabetes.
- Age: As a person ages, the rate of physical activity decreases, and he is more likely to gain weight, and this may explain the increase in the chance of developing diabetes as a person ages .
- Ethnicity: There are some races in which type 2 diabetes is more common than others, such as blacks, but scientists have not yet been able to explain the reason behind this.
- Gestational Diabetes: The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases if a woman suffers from gestational diabetes or if the birth of a child weighing more than four kilograms.
- Polycystic ovaries: The chance of developing diabetes increases if you suffer from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and this syndrome can be defined as menstrual disorder, obesity, and excessive hair growth.
- High Blood Pressure: The bypass blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg increases the risk of suffering from type II diabetes.
- Fat level disorder: The high ratio of triglycerides in the blood, as well as lower lipoprotein density ratio is high known as good cholesterol causes an increase the chance of developing diabetes type II.