Epistaxis or nosebleeds can be defined by bleeding from the nose as a result of rupture of the small blood vessels lining the nasal area, and nosebleeds are a common disorder in children, especially between 3-10 years of the child's age, which may seem dangerous. Here it should be noted that nosebleeds are not usually indicative of a serious health problem in the child, and it lasts for a short period, usually not exceeding 10 minutes, and stops without the need for treatment, or by following simple home treatment methods. The reasons that may lead to the child's suffering from a lack of blood that reaches the stage of anemia , unless heavy bleeding has been repeated for several weeks or months in a row.  
Causes of nosebleeds in children
Most cases of nosebleeds in children are classified under anterior nosebleeds, which is the bleeding that occurs in the front and soft part of the nose, and this part of the nose is characterized by its richness in small and small blood vessels, which may become inflamed or irritated easily, which in turn leads to rupture And its bleeding, and this type of bleeding is more common in children because of the decrease in the thickness of the lining of the nose during childhood compared to its thickness after adulthood. As for posterior nosebleeds, in which the bleeding is often more severe and more difficult to stop, it is rarely It affects children,   and the following is an explanation of some common reasons that may lead to nosebleeds in children:
- Spontaneous nosebleeds: Most cases of nosebleeds in children occur spontaneously and without knowing the main cause of their occurrence. 
- Suctioning the mucous fluid from the nose: The use of a nasal suction device may lead to bleeding in some cases, especially if the part responsible for suction is inserted into a point deep inside the nose. 
- Nose injury: As a result of fragility of the blood vessels in the nose in children, exposure to a minor injury in the nose such as hitting the ball, falling on the nose, or even rubbing the nose forcefully and inserting the finger into the nose may lead to bleeding, in addition to the forceful pushing of the mucous fluid from the nose. The route of exhalation may lead to bleeding in some cases.  
- Nasal and sinus disorders: Infection with one of the types of sinus infection leads to nasal congestion and dryness of mucous fluid, and infection with one of the types of nasal allergies leads to a feeling of itching in the nose, which results in the child's attempt to force the mucous fluid by exhaling or exhaling Vigorous scrubbing of the nose, which in turn causes bleeding.  
- Dry air: Dry air or exposure to hot heating air in winter causes the lining of the nose to dry out and increases the risk of bleeding. 
- Medicines: The use of some types of medicines, such as allergy medicines, may dry the lining of the nose and increase the risk of bleeding, and the use of some medicines may affect the blood clotting mechanism and increase the chance of bleeding, such as: aspirin , and ibuprofen , and here it is worth noting the need to avoid the use of aspirin by children because it may have other serious health complications.  
- Blood diseases: Severe nosebleeds that are difficult to stop in children may indicate a blood disorder that affects blood clotting , as these disorders are related to blood platelets or clotting factors, such as hereditary hemorrhagic disease or haemophilia, as it may indicate Excessive bleeding from gums or wounds due to these disorders, and it is worth noting that blood diseases are a rare cause of frequent nosebleeds.  
- Tissue abnormalities: Some children may suffer from abnormal growth in nasal tissues, such as nose polyps, which are often benign but cause bleeding, and here it is worth noting the need to treat these tissue abnormalities, and the risk of bleeding may increase in If there are structural abnormalities in the nose in children. 
- Chronic diseases: Some chronic diseases require oxygen therapy , or the use of some medications that may cause the lining of the nose to dry out, which results in a higher risk of nosebleeds as well. 
- Migraine: Some scientists believe that nosebleeds are a precursor to migraines or migraines in children, as it was observed that nosebleeds often precede migraines by about three years, as a study published in the European Journal of Neurology in Children showed 2015 AD that 1.1% of children suffer from nosebleeds during a migraine attack, and some scientists believe that the actual percentage exceeds this percentage.  
- Tumors: In some rare cases, bleeding may be caused by a type of tumor in the nasal passages. 
- Severe head injuries: In some rare cases also, bleeding may be due to a severe head injury. 
Children are more prone to epistaxis
There are some factors that may increase a child's risk of developing epilepsy, including the following: 
- Cold or infection caught a transpiring .
- Suffering from some types of allergies.
- Living in dry weather areas.
- Tamper with the nose.
Tips for preventing nosebleeds in children
Some tips can be followed if the child suffers from frequent nosebleeds to help prevent bleeding, and some of them can be explained as follows: 
- Refrain from smoking near the child.
- Consult a doctor if the child suffers from any type of allergy .
- Use a home humidifier in the event that the air in the house is dry, taking care to clean the device periodically to prevent the growth of fungi and germs inside the device.
- Putting Vaseline inside the child's nose several times a day to prevent the mucous membranes from drying out.
- Preventing the child from messing with the nose and inserting a finger, or forcefully exhaling to try to get rid of the mucus.
- Use a saline solution provided as nasal drops or a spray as directed by your health care provider.
- Instruct the child about putting several drops of warm water into the nose before exhaling forcefully to try to get rid of nasal congestion. 
- Using antihistamine drugs if a child has allergies to help relieve an itchy nose. 
- Ensure that the child wears the appropriate protective equipment while practicing various sports exercises . 
- Make sure to trim your child's nails regularly to prevent injury to the lining of the nose. 
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