They are the molecules that carry the responsibility for storing and translating genetic information in various organisms, and DNA is found in the nucleus of cells, and its shape can be described as a double spiral staircase, and it consists of two bands, and it forms the chromosomes that carry the congenital and physical characteristics of living organisms, and these chromosomes include the genes that They carry specific genetic information. It falls under the two types of nucleic acids, namely: DNA Alraibouzay oxygen reduced the DNA , nuclear Alraibouzay and DNA the RNA , and you will learn in this Almqala on the first type.
The word DNA is an acronym for the first of the following word: DeoxyriboNucleic Acid is intended where is the DNA - RNA deficient oxygen, who carries in the cell from one generation to another genetic information, and therefore it is possible to identify the ancestors of the person, by analyzing the DNA of its, from By taking a sample of blood, hair, nails, saliva and mouth cells.
The components of DNA
DNA can be described as a long, thin molecule consisting of things called (nucleotides). These nucleotides are linked together by a backbone consisting of both phosphates and the pentavalent sugar, and sometimes the nucleotides are called bases, and there are four types of nucleotides, which are:
- Adenine, Adenine denoted by A.
- Thiamine, Thymine denoted by T.
- Saitosin, Cytosine denoted by C.
- Guanine, Guanine denoted by G.
The cells obtain the instructions required to do their functions from DNA , so DNA can be likened to being a computer program, while the cell is the computer to be run, the program is the one that gives instructions to the computer how to do its functions, and in simple words, DNA is the one that stores the genetic material, transmitting the genetic characteristics From parents to grandparents.
- The DNA of every person on the planet is approximately 99.9% similar to that of other people, and only 0.1% differs from one person to another, and that is what makes people different from each other.
- Dr. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix structure of DNA in 1953.
- If all of the DNA molecules in the body were broken down and stretched straight, they would reach the sun and return several times.
- The first time that DNA was identified and isolated as a separate molecule, was by the Swiss scientist Friedrich Messcher in 1869 AD.